See Wagon Cap.
A pent SHAPED CAP, having curved sections of roof to give a partially rounded appearance. A traditional Kentish/Sussex shape.
The inner portion of a millstone surrounding the eye.
(1) see FULLING MILL. (2) see HORSE MILL.
A cast iron bearing box mounted in a wall.
A WINDMILL set on the ramparts of a castle or fortified town.
(1) Wooden fillet in the wall for fixing partitions. (2) A beam laid in or on a wall. (3) A cast-iron plate, usually circular used with a stay bolt to strengthen a building.
See Tie Rod.
The horizontal BEVEL GEAR or LANTERN PINION driven by the BRAKE WHEEL or PIT WHEEL to turn the UPRIGHT SHAFT or LAYSHAFT, being the first DRIVEN gear wheel in a wind or watermill.
The STOCKS of a WINDMILL fitted with a cross instead of a POLL END (N.E.Eng.).
See Alarm Bell.
See Alarm Bell.
Planks set on edge on top of a weir to allow adjustment to the height of the water.
BY-PASS SLUICE (used by Thames Conservancy 1908).
Water Axle (Shaft)
See Wheel Shaft.
In mining, a water pump engine.
A field which may flood naturally, or by controlled flooding in the winter, preventing the soil freezing, and thus obtaining an early crop of grass. As a result it is considered to be very fertile land. Beasts cannot be left there overwinter
A MILL at which the motive power is obtained from water acting on a waterwheel or turbine.
An ancient right of the miller to receive a constant supply of water, without hindrance.
A C19 development using an enclosed impeller whose cups or blades are scientifically shaped, driven by IMPULSE and REACTION of water. The casing commonly contains vanes or water flow control devices whereby the output power can be controlled. A higher efficiency and increased speeds and power are obtained compared with a water-wheel. (1) ARMFIELD TURBINE A turbine manufactured at the Armfield works in Ringwood. They were millwrights and founders. Their two principle turbines were the "River Patent" and the "British Empire" which were produced from the late C19 onwards. Joseph J Armfield. The firm is no longer in existence. (2) GILKES TURBINE A turbine manufacturer, whose works are in Kendal, who still repair and manufacture turbines. They have bought up many other turbine manufacturers over the years and are now the principal turbine firm in this country. (3) FOURNEYRON TURBINE An outward flow reaction turbine. (4) FRANCIS TURBINE A mixed flow reaction turbine in which the water enters the runner radially inwards and leaves axially. Developed in the U.S.A. in the 1840s. (5) PONCELET WATER TURBINE An inwards, radial flow reaction water turbine developted in France in 1826.
The wall of a watermill which faces into the lade.
Walls in a DRAINAGE MILL, making a channel for the water.
Contrived thickening or thinning in a sheet of paper which give darker or lighter areas in the paper as it is being made. These become visible when the sheet is held up to the light.
A wheel which is able to extract mechanical energy from water as it passes from a high level to a lower level. There are various types of waterwheel, the selection of type being related to the conditions found at the site. See VERTICAL WATERWHEEL, HORIZONTAL TURBINE and WATER TURBINE.
See Walk Mill.
See Angle Of Weather.
See Breast Beam.
See Storm Hatch.
A plate or shield inserted in a barrel vault for a wheel shaft to pass into the mill, to prevent water ingress.
See Storm Hatch.
See Neck Studs.
A board with a tapered cross section used for cladding. Their overlap may vary according to local tradition.
The close-fitted boarding covering the structural timbers of a mill.
Sails with a varied pitch from inner to outer end to the other. see also PITCH.
A TEXTILE MILL in which looms for weaving cloth are operated by water power.
A strengthening member in a casting.
A long handled crook, used to pull weeds from the screen or other areas.
See Debris Grille.
The box for carrying the weights of a STRIKING CHAIN.
See Striking Chain.
See Striking Wheel.
(1) A restriction or dam across a water course to permit the backing up of the water (may be used to divert water to a mill). (2) A feature in a dam permitting the excess water to pass over the top. (3) An enclosure of stakes etc., to catch fish.
Is suspended from the CAP FRAME and used to centre the CAP (NW Eng.) see also CENTRING FRAME
General term for the portion of the paper machine on which the PULP becomes the sheet of paper
Triticum Sp. (Gramineae). Most widely cultivated cereal in temperate zones; high yield & disease resistant; American wheats tend to be 'hard' & English 'soft'.
American term for a grain of wheat.
Low grade flour containing mainly germ and fine bran.
Ground wheat as it comes from the stones, undressed. see WHOLEMEAL.
(1) A cleaning machine. (2) A heavy wire screen placed in a spout with an outlet for rubbish. see BALANCE DISH.
See Paint Staff.
A disused term for wholemeal flour.
A circular component capable of rotating, used for many purposes and having many forms of construction. see WATERWHEEL, BELT PULLEY, GEAR WHEEL, BRAKE WHEEL, MITRE WHEEL, FRICTION DRIVE, TRUCK WHEELS, CAP-CENTRING WHEELS, WORM, WORM WHEEL, PIT WHEEL, COMBINATION PULLEY, COG WHEEL, SPURWHEEL, COMPASS ARM WHEEL, CLASP ARM WHEEL etc.
Wheel & Chain Gear
Endless chain for hand WINDING a mill CAP, or for a hand-operated hoist.
See Wheel Shaft.
The enclosure, especially on the side of the mill, to house the waterwheel etc.
Wheel of pots
See Noria Wheel.
(1) Structural recess to accommodate a waterwheel, usually beside or between working buildings. (2) The pit in which a waterwheel turns. see also RUNWAY
See Rim Gearing.
See Annular Sail.
The wooden or iron shaft on which the WATERWHEEL is mounted. see also AXLE.
(1) see DRESSING. (2) N.England term used for sharpening an edge tool.-.hence "whetstone".
Wheatmeal which has been DRESSED to remove BRAN and other non-white constituents. There have been many types of flour depending on the degree to which unwanted materials have been dressed out and also on the initial quality of the grain. See MIDDLINGS, POLLARDS. BRAN.
A smith who works with metals other than iron.
Wind or watermill in which chalk or calcined limestone is ground with a pair of HORIZONTAL MILLSTONES, or by EDGE RUNNERS (in a water-filled grinding pan), for whitewash or fertiliser.
Whirling grain in a centrifugal machine to rid it of surplus water added during washing. Usually associated with power/roller mills.
Bread made from WHOLEMEAL.
Consists of the undressed milled wheat grain.
Describes a rotary motion in an opposite direction to the motion of the sun: e.g. applicable to the anti-clockwise motion of certain millstones.
( from Willow ) A preparatory process before the spinning of cotton or woollen yarns.
A wooden spring for tensioning the SHOE against the DAMSEL or QUANT, usually made of ash or hazel. See DEVIL.
A hand-operated machine with or without GEARS which can produce a powerful pull on a rope or chain useful for lifting or pulling operations, such as WINDING a mill with a winch fitted on its TAILPOLE. Also known as a WINDLASS.
CHAIN POSTS used with a TAILPOLE mill. See TAILPOLE.
The WEATHER BEAM.
An ANNULAR SAILED WIND MILL on a skeletal wooden or iron tower, normally used for pumping or generating electricity. (Also known as AMERICAN WINDMILL.)
A pump powered by wind, usually driven by annular sails on a 'pylon type' metal tower. See WIND ENGINE.
Annular sail controlled by patent type gear.
Board on the leading edge of a sail to 'gather in' the wind.
A WINDMILL turned to face the wind.
The process of turning the MILL so that the SAILS face square to the wind (pronounced as in 'win'). See WINDING GEAR.
TAILPOLE or FANTAIL for turning the windmill to face the wind (into THE EYE OF THE WIND). May also be turned by the use of inside winders such as the Dutch use or at Chesterton and Tysoe mills, as well as Wheel & Chain as at e.g. Bursledon and Llynon. Also known as LUFFING.
See Winding Gear.
A wooden or iron WORM which meshes with the RACK to turn a CAP to face the wind. See WINDING GEAR.
(1) see SACK BOLLARD. (2) see WINCH.
A measure of corn. (term used in 1556 document).
See POST, SMOCK & TOWER
An artificial mound on or in which early POST MILLS often stood, either to give them greater height for a stronger wind or to cover the bottom of the TRESTLE to stabilise the mill against high winds.
See Intermediate Uprights.
Main SHAFT of a WINDMILL axle of iron or wood, usually entering the cap or body of a windmill at a small angle to the horizontal, and which carries the sails and the BRAKE WHEEL. see also MORTISED WINDSHAFT.
A journal of cast-iron with four "wings" in the form of a cross, set into the end of a wooden shaft to run on a bearing. Same as CROSS-TAILED GUDGEON.
(1) A machine in which a FAN(2) blows air to remove CHAFF and other light material from the grain as it falls across the airstream, before it is ground. It may incorporate sieves. (2) A flat basket held or shaken in the wind to blow chaff and other light refuse from the threshed grain.
Fan which blows chaff and other light refuse material from uncleaned grain as it passes through a box and sieve.
A watermill on a small stream that is only strong enough to work it during the winter. A class of WATERMILL mentioned in the Domesday Survey, and still functioning in Denmark. See NAILBOURNE.
Water-meadows (Old term.)
A stream which only flows in the winter (Bourne, Piddle, Lavant etc).
A Dutch type of HOLLOW POST MILL driving a SCOOP WHEEL. See HOLLOW POST MILL.
Short for machine wire and is that moving part of the FOURDRINIER machine on which the sheet of paper is actually formed.
See Wire Machine.
Device used to separate FLOUR from SHARPS & BRAN, and grade it into several qualities. A type of cleaning, or dressing, machine using a fixed cylindrical frame covered with a wire mesh containing rotary brushes. See DRESSER.
Diamond-shaped pattern of the paper-machine wire, seen on the wire side or in the look-through of a sheet of paper.
A watermill in which rods of metal were pulled through a succession of holes of reducing size, to produce wire.
Pattern made from bent wires which form the WATERMARK. They are sewn onto the surface of the cover of a hand mould and protrude into the PULP, causing thinner areas which show as lighter lines in the sheet of paper.
Stay wires for easing the strain on the SAILS.
With The Sun
Clockwise. See also AGAINST THE SUN.
Traditional material for building mills; Oak for wheels and main mill construction; elm for FLOATS; apple, beech or hornbeam for COGS.
See Paint Staff.
An old term for a BELT PULLEY.
Wooden blocks round the main post in a post mill floor. See COLLAR(1).
Cleans, cards, weaves and fulls woollen cloth.
When the stones are running without grain present.
Long, slender wooden bars linking the levers of SHUTTERS together. Same as SHUTTER BARS.
(1) Cylindrical GEARWHEEL bearing a helical TOOTH or START; frequently used in conjunction with a rack in windmill winding gear. It could be regarded as a single-toothed GEAR WHEEL. Sometimes provided with more than one tooth or 'start'. In Westmorland it was used as part of the MILLSTONE lifting hoists. (2) see AUGER.
A SPUR GEAR having its cogs set at an angle to mesh with a WORM.
See Woollen Mill.
( adj.) of paper from a woven wire, with (usually) no obvious patterning when held to the light. Compare LAID.
Cover of a mould made from wire woven like a piece of cloth.
See Ripe Charge.