A "floating" ring of iron or wood which maintains the spacing of the rollers or balls in a shot curb.
The result after extraction of the oil from the seeds with the stampers.
Cake Breaker (Crusher)
A machine for breaking up animal cake such as linseed or cotton cake - the residue from oil manufacture.
Flint nodules roasted in a kiln to make them easier to grind. Then crushed & ground in water in a GRINDING PAN to provide a component part of potters "clay" for making white pottery. It is rich in silica and airborne dust causes silicosis. Early grinding was done in air with resultant lung damage.
See Flint Kiln.
A set or stack of rollers or rolls between which the paper passes and is smoothed by their weight or heated rollers for hot pressing and glazing The CALENDER is placed at the end of the paper-machine while the super-calender is separate. Both may have heated rolls. In the 1850's usually a separate finishing process but now usually integrated in the Paper mill.
Calendrer or Calenderer
An operator of stacks of CALENDERS or heated rollers for hot pressing and glazing of cloth or paper as used in textile and paper making. In the 1850's usually a separate finishing process but now usually integrated in the paper mill.
Two curved lifting irons which connect a STONE CRANE to the RUNNER STONE via pins inserted into sockets set into the edge of the stone. The curvature of the irons allows the stone to be turned over while being suspended. Compare a STIRRUP which serves the same function but is a single piece of metal.
A type of pellet press in which pressure is applied to unconsolidated black-powder by the action of a cam.
Term for a large bogie used to convey smaller bogies.
Projecting studs on a trip wheel or axle (camshaft), employed to operate hammers or stamps or other devices requiring intermittent motion e.g.sieves.
A SHAFT to which CAMS are fitted.
See Poll End.
See Poll End.
A MILL used for the purpose of boring the barrels of cannon, using water power.
Strong wooden corner posts of a smock mill, canted inwards as they rise. (origin probably from Dutch KANT = side).
The segments of the wooden rim of a GEAR WHEEL to which the SPOKES and COGS are attached e.g. BRAKE WHEEL, SPUR WHEEL. If the cants are so large as to fill the centre of a wheel, the wheel is 'planked solid'.
The cloths which are spread on a common sail.
The moveable roof and frame supporting the WINDSHAFT, SAILS and luffing gear in a TOWER or SMOCK MILL. This cap may have several different shapes most of which are not readily defined e.g. : boat, conical, dome, ogee, onion, pent, pepperpot etc and which may also possess regional variations of construction.
Cap Centring Wheels
Wheels attached to the cap frame which keep the CAP centrally on the CURB.
The lower bearing surface of the cap which rests on the curb, from which the rafters of the cap may rise.
The DUST FLOOR.
The horizontal timber frame forming the base of the cap.
The rear tie beam of the sheers.
Cap Rafter Circle
In caps with an approximately circular base, the horizontal ring, built over the base members of the cap frame, that supports the rafters.
Rafters in the cap, or in a post mill roof.
Diagonal timber braces in the corners of the main frame of a cap, which cover the surface of the curb. The ones at the front may run under the breast beam, supporting it.
See Cap Ribs.
The heavy timber secured across the top of a milldam to minimise wear.
A rope winding roller or drum which is rotated by the insertion of rods or bars into holes through the roller. May be used for lifting MILLSTONES or for WINDING the mill.
Capstan Head and Bar
A rack and pinion arrangement for lifting a sluice gate, which has an iron pinion attached to a capstan head to allow an iron bar to be used.
On tailpole winded tower or smock mill caps, the large spoked and handled winch wheel sometimes fitted to the lower end of the tailpole to assist hand winding.
The trade name of an abrasive compound of silicon and carbon which is sometimes used for making COMPOSITION millstones.
The wooden body of a post or smock mill (carpentry/building term for structural timberwork).
A term applied to thick, stiff papers, or stiff board produced by passing together a number of layers of paper.
The preliminary stage before spinning, to open, straighten and mix the wool or other fibres.
A combing device employed in woollen mills, prior to spinning, to produce a thick roll of cleaned wool with the staple all in one direction. Also used with cotton and other fibres.
See Carding Machine.
The driver of a horse van
See Fantail Carriage.
A cast-iron support or container for bearing brasses.
Part of the timber feed mechanism in a saw mill.
The weir or dam that diverts water from the supplying stream into the lade (Scot.).
Cart Level Floor
A floor at a convenient height for loading onto a cart.
Iron which has been melted (either, anciently in a blast furnace or in a cupola). The molten iron is removed from the bottom of the furnace and poured into moulds. Cast Iron tends to be brittle due to absorption of carbon and other impurities from the fuel and ore. See CASTING.
A metal object made by pouring molten iron, brass or other metal into a mould having the shape of the required object. When the metal has cooled and solidified, the finished or partly finished object is removed from the mould. Moulds are usually made of damp sand, by imprinting a PATTERN.
Catchpole’s Sky Scrapers
See Air Brakes.
May be used for the staging round a mill.
A type of HOLLOW POST MILL of the Loire Valley, France (literally 'cave mill').
The basic substance of paper manufacture, the chemical formula being C6 H10 05. It is the predominant constituent of plant tissues from which it must be separated before it can be used.
A heavy timber frame at dust floor level, suspended from the cap frame by uprights and braces, used to weigh down the cap and to keep it centred within the curb of a tower mill via an iron ring encircling the upright shaft. Called a WELL-FRAME by Rex Wailes by the analogy of its shape to a well-sinking frame.
The guide and restraining wheels of the cap, in a smock or tower mill.
The main central beam of the cap frame. See SPRATTLE BEAM.
Centre Of Wheel
Iron HUB with spokes in one or two pieces. sometimes known as spider.
A tubular-shaped member in the centre of a flint-GRINDING PAN through which the SHAFT(3) passes. It prevents water and slurry escaping from the centre of the pan.
A rotating FLOUR DRESSER in which the ground material is forced against a circumferential sieve by internal rotating beaters. The sieve also rotates, but slowly. also known as CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATOR and CENTRIFUGAL REEL SEPARATOR.
Governors working by centrifugal force. See GOVERNOR
Centrifugal Reel Separator
A rectangular open frame suspended below a cap frame, to weigh down the cap and keep it centred within the curb of a tower mill. Called a WELL-FRAME by Rex Wailes by the analogy of its shape to a well-sinking frame.
A hollow cast-iron cylinder suspended below the cap centring frame with external rollers engaging with the main floor beams, and through which the main vertical shaft passes.
See Cap Centring Wheels.
A forge at an ironworks where wroughtiron was re-heated for further hammering.
Husks and winnowings separated from grain.
A machine to convey material horizontally, consisting of a wood or metal trough in which scrapers, fixed to two chains, drag the material along.
See Chain Conveyer.
See Sack Hoist.
The more widely-spaced WATERMARK lines across the narrow way of the sheet. They are caused by the tying wires which bind the laid lines into the cover of the mould.
A pole extending down from the fanstage for attaching the striking chain to when the mill is not working. It is equipped with pulleys at the bottom end, through which the chain passes, to prevent it swinging about and hitting the mill tower.
Chain Purchase Wheel
Wheel turned by means of an endless chain; for winding mill or working striking gear etc. (can be used in reverse for sack hoist e.g. in Lincolnshire). See also Y-WHEEL. Also applied to a wheel in a hoist - either carrying sack chain or as a driving means.
A wooden block carrying the NECKBEARING, same as PILLOW-BLOCK.
Cast-iron fittings fastened under a cap frame acting as bearings for rollers in a LIVE CURB.
13.5 cwt. (Scot.).
Was an important detergent used in the Fulling process. It is, of course, a polite name for urine. In some places this was purchased from householders at 1d per pot, hence the expression "to spend a penny".
See Keep Flange.
Pairs of tapered wooden beams clamped and bolted either side of the centre of a windmill stock to reinforce it. Same as CLAMPS. (Kent).
Blocks either side of a windshaft for checking it in a gale.
Chemical Wood Pulp
Wood reduced to PULP by a chemical process, e.g. by boiling or digesting with either caustic soda, caustic soda and sulphate or soda or bi-sulphate of lime.
A variety of quartz, resembling flint, but more brittle, occurring in strata. Also called hornstone. (used in flint grinding pans).
A stone with a high silica content, used for grinding CALCINED FLINT. Hard varieties, used as pavers, are obtained from N. Wales near Gronant & at Richmond Yorks. Softer varieties veined with limestone, used as RUNNERS, from Derbyshire.
The hardened (external surface) portion of a chilled iron roller. (made by rapid cooling of casting, hence 'chilled iron/steel')..
An instrument used to give the weight of a bushel of grain, using only a small sample. Sometimes spelt chrondrometer.
The product of a millstone or of a break in a roller mill.
Oversize fragments of corned powder from Glaze & Dust houses. See also `Stops' (Gatebeck).
A MILL in which apples are pulped and pressed to extract the juice for cider making.
The edge from which the water enters the wheel.
The circular rims of a waterwheel onto which the paddles are fitted.
A MILLSTONE dressing where the furrows have one or both edges cut in a circular arc.
An iron grip inserted into the side of millstone for lifting it. Also known as a CLAW, LEWISES (set of).
U-shaped brackets holding the sails to the stocks.
Strengthening wooden members bolted to each side of the STOCKS & locking the sail assembly in the POLL END. also called CHEEKS, CHEEK PIECES or SIDE CHEEKS.
The weather-board cover for the open windows of a post mill (unglazed).
Butted boarding used for cladding. (nearly obsolete Essex term).
(1) Wood or stone block used as a primitive regulator to control flow of grain from shoe to stones, now obsolete in England. Usually associated with a HORIZONTAL MILL. V
Trap doors in a windmill (old Sussex).
Clasp Arm Wheel
A WHEEL where two pairs of ARMS form a square through which the shaft passes. Wedges are inserted to centre and ensure a tight fit. Increasingly used from the C18th onwards. V
Clay used to seal a flint GRINDING PAN against water leakage.
Floor, or gangway between buildings, where special rubber-soled shoes or overshoes were worn to minimise entry of grit to the process of manufacture.
See Grain Cleaner.
(1) Peg to secure a furled sail cloth. (2) A strengthening plate (C17th Hants).
Small cast-iron bearings screwed to a sweep frame for shutters to swing in. Same as THIMBLES (Kent).
The control hatch for the water supply to a wheel or bypass (northern term).
SLUICES (N Yorks).
Catch used to lock the winding gear of the penstock or rack & pinion of other water controls. Also called a DETENT. See also RATCHET WHEEL syn.: PAWL.
Hard, adherent powder accumulated on the mill-bed or runners during incorporation.
SAILS of a WINDMILL that run clockwise when viewed from the front of the mill.
A wood-working mill equipped for making clogs for footwear.
Dense stones with few 'bubbles'
See Common Sails.
The act of spreading cloths or closing shutters of sails.
See Reefing Tackle.
See Moving Stage.
A mechanical means of engaging or disengaging a drive between two shafts.
A coupling, capable of being disengaged & engaged, in two or three part upright shafts (Essex) .
A large screw for fastening timbers together, with a square head instead of a screwdriver slot.
The term applied to mineral substances such as china clay which are used to cover the surface of the paper to make it more suitable for some methods of printing.
The pivot point on top of the STONE SPINDLE which supports the bridge of the RUNNER STONE. Also known as an ONION HEAD.
A horse, often ridden, added to the front of another to help with drawing a heavy load
See Cog Pit.
Socket at the centre of the BALANCE RHYND. Serves as supporting bearing for the runner stone.
A wooden lever for lifting the steps of a POST MILL when turning it to wind. Same as TALTHUR (Essex).
An indented SEPARATOR for cleaning GRAIN. See also TRIEUR.
See Cockle Cylinder.
A brown gunpowder made with incompletely carbonised wood or straw, in place of charcoal. It contained some volatile organic matter and had a lower ignition temperature than ordinary black powder.
A temporary dam to allow construction / alteration work in a river bed, completely surrounding the work being undertaken.
An iron cross to carry windmill sails, having flanged sides forming a channel into which each SAIL-BACK fits.
When the 'teeth' of a GEAR WHEEL are separate and replaceable they are called COGS. May be wooden (or metal). Need to be a resilient close-grained wood. Woods used: Apple, Beech, Pear, Hornbeam, Oak, Acacia, Hawthorn, Holly, Ash and Oak often being used for wet work. Wooden COGS, the SHANKS of which are fitted tightly into MORTISES in the rim of the wheel after the fashion of a TENON, are secured by wedges or pins after the fashion of TUSK TENONS.
A measure which is a quarter of a PECK. (Northern Scotland)
Roughly-shaped wooden cogs ready for mounting and shaping.
(1) A wooden jig used to cut out the blanks for wooden gear cogs. (2) The cupboard enclosing the driving gears of the mill. Usually on the SPOUT FLOOR.
In watermills, the space enclosed by the hursting, containing the pit wheel & drive to the stones.
The hole or pit in which the PIT WHEEL runs. See also WHEELPIT
See Cog Box.
The grooved, moving cylindrical component of a centrifugal governor, attached to the links, and engaged by the fork of the STEELYARD. Same as SPOOL.
Two pieces of sheet metal, each with a semi-circular cut-away, encircling the neck journal of a windshaft to exclude the weather. Sometimes found on waterwheel shafts as well (Kent).
See Cullin Stone.
Mill for grinding materials to produce colour for paint.
A pulley wheel made of wood and metal, usually having a wooden rim on an iron hub.
Traditional northern Europe windmill sails, where cloth, sacking or canvas is spread on a lattice framework, each sail being set separately to suit the wind conditions, Is the earliest type of sail now in use in England. Various terms are used to indicate the varying amount of cloth spread on a common sail. See also JIB SAILS
See Common Sails.
Compass Arm Wheel
Wooden wheel with radial arms mortised through the shaft on which it is mounted. This tended to weaken the shaft.
A rare "post mill" variant, where the body of the mill is supported on the walls of the round-house, but it has no post. See also TURRET MILL.
An artificial millstone with CARBORUNDUM, EMERY, crushed BURR or similar abrasive material applied as a grinding face with a cement backing.
Compound Steam Engine
A beam engine utilising the exhaust steam from its high pressure cylinder to feed a low pressure cylinder.
Controlled moistening of grain to prepare it for grinding by softening the bran and mellowing the floury part of the berry.
A CLUTCH in which the power is transmitted between the shafts by means of the friction occurring when an internal and an external conical bearing, faces of the same angle, are in contact.
A rock composed of rounded fragments of various rocks cemented together in a mass of hardened clay and sand.
A mechanical means of engaging or disengaging a drive, where the bearing faces are conical.
A rod designed to convert circular motion into 'to and fro' motion in steam and other engines etc. Used in saw mills.
Constant Pitch Sails
Sails with bars set at identical angles to the whip from inner to outer end.
Gate near waterwheel at the end of the flume. Controls flow of water to wheel. Also called SHUT. See SLUICE. See PENSTOCK.
lidded steel drum in which freshly-carbonised charcoal was cooled and conditioned prior to being ground, thus avoiding spontaneous ignition.
The dust which comes off the oat grain during SHELLING.
Four bushels of any kind of grain (not flour).
Building where barrels were made by coopers,
Strengthening pieces of timber.
A block of stone/brick/timber projecting from a wall, supporting some feature on its horizontal top surface.
Walls built out or thickened to support floor beams or joists.
(1) A term used by Jesse Wightman for the iron box set in the eye of a bedstone to receive the spindle. See NECK BOX . (2) The iron box containing the steady bearing in a BEDSTONE. (3) The box used for making sand moulds for castings.
Grain or seed of any cereal crop. In America it means only MAIZE. See GRAIN MAIZE.
See Grain Cleaner.
Early grist mill made of logs; usually equipped with a tub wheel or small overshot wheel and a single pair of stones.
Corn Cutter and Grader
Cuts wheat or maize into grits and grades it according to particle size.
Protective regulatory statutes controlling import & export of grain from time of Edward III till 1846 when Free Trade was introduced by Peel. Bounties paid on export & duties on imports.
A MILL in which WHEAT and other cereals are ground and may be further processed for the manufacture of foodstuffs such as FLOUR.
(1) FALSE. If the body of a post mill is extended backwards or forwards, the lighter construction posts are "false". (2) TRUE. The corner posts of a post mill body. Where the body has been extended (or is so constructed) to have FALSE rear corner posts, true corner posts lie within the body towards the rear.
Process whereby compressed slabs of milled black powder are broken by being passed between a series of toothed, fluted or smooth gunmetal or zinc rollers, and then separated or `cut' by sieving into granules of approximately even size.
The iron frame, consisting of two or more encircling bands with straps at right angles, to give support to timber. e.g. to the top of a mill post.
An iron pin, wedge or bolt for securing parts of machinery, usually having taper sides to wedge firmly in position.
A split COTTER that is opened after passing through a hole.
A TEXTILE MILL in which cotton is processed.
The action of transferring the newly-formed paper from the hand mould onto a felt blanket so that the water may be pressed out.
They are situated at the end of the moving wire from which paper is transferred onto a felt blanket on a FOURDRINIER paper-machine.
The person who lifts off the papermaking frame to produce hand-made paper.
Special clamps behind the SAILS, in use in the north-west.
In a WATERMILL where the WALLOWER is on a horizontal shaft which carries a BEVEL GEAR(s) or FACE WHEEL(s), to drive the STONES.
(1) A gear connecting one or more other gears or wheels and turning in an opposite direction. (2) The bevel wheel on the horizontal countershaft of a drainage mill with a turbine pump, engaging the crown wheel on the bottom of the UPRIGHT-SHAFT. (Norfolk).
A drive shaft parallel to another, but running in the opposite direction.
The curved section making up part of the rim of a waterwheel (medieval term).
The wire surface of a hand MOULD through which the water drains, leaving the fibres behind to form a sheet of paper. It is also applied to the surface of a dandy roll.
A half lantern or TRUNDLE WHEEL. See TRUNDLE WHEEL.
`Corning rolls covered with pyramidal teeth.
The series of fine grooves or crackson the LANDS of MILLSTONES. As many as 16 to the inch may be cut.Also known as stitching, feathering, scratching or drills. Pits at irregular intervals, instead of grooves, are cut for grinding oats.
Powder which has settled and hardened on the shaft of glazing drums (Hounslow).
(1) see HORSE. (2) A small portable cage, suspended by ropes from above, used to gain access to the outside of a mill for maintenance such as painting.
Milled products (probably oats) used for force-feeding poultry (dialect word - Surrey C19th).
The metal rings around the main gudgeon (i.e. GUDGEON RINGS).
A part of or attachment to a rotary SHAFT which is offset such that its axis which is parallel with the shaft, describes a circle when the shaft rotates. Usually used in conjunction with a "connecting rod" to convert the rotary motion of the shaft into a reciprocating motion as for oscillating a sieve. Also used as a component part of engines.
The stage of the sawmill with the CRANKSHAFT.
The wheel of the CRANKSHAFT which engages the brake wheel.
A rotary SHAFT which is fitted or incorporated with a CRANK.
A chain-hauled scrapers running in a rectangular duct.
A cord used to adjust and hold the angle of the shoe feeding grain to the eye of the RUNNER STONE, also where it operates a GATE, SLIDE or SPATTLE in the HOPPER or SHOE as alternative means of control. Also known as CORD (Northern TERM). See TWIST PEG.
(1)The four-armed fitting on the front of the STRIKING-ROD in a PATENT SAIL set-up. Same as SPIDER (Kent). (2) see IRON CROSS.
Cross Bridge Tree
Diagonal iron stays, set between the frames of a waterwheel to strengthen it.
(1) A main horizontal member of the underframe (TRESTLE) of a POST MILL. There are commonly two, set at right-angles, but sometimes three. The outer ends carry the QUARTER BARS & the centre intersection fits the horns on the bottom of the MILL POST to steady it. The crosstrees normally rest on masonry or brick piers and carry the weight of the whole structure via the quarter bars. (2) In a horizontal watermill, a horizontal bar which steadies the LIGHTENING TREE at half its height to resist side thrust.
See Poll End.
See Cross-Tailed Gudgeon.
Bearing pin or JOURNAL with four wings, which the end of the shaft is shaped to fit and securely hold the wings to hold the bearing pin true.
A joint between two pieces of timber which cross each other, each let into the other.
The Y-shaped end of a quant which slots over the BRIDGE into the MACE on overdriven stones.
Name often used in old documents for CROWBAR.
An iron bar having a flattened slightly curved end. Used to raise or lower the RUNNER STONE in conjunction with a MANYHEIGHT and STONE WEDGE to allow a ROPE SLING to be passed through the EYE of the stone for use in turning the stone over for DRESSING. Also known as PINCH BAR. See also STONE WEDGE. Known as a GAVELOCK in northern counties.
A broth made from toasted oatmeal (Scot. and N Eng.).
(1) A horizontal gear wheel mounted above the GREAT SPUR WHEEL near the top of the main upright shaft, from which secondary drives may be taken for auxiliary machinery including the SACK HOIST. (2) WALLOWER in a windmill (Lincolnshire/Suffolk).
The curved face of a pulley wheel which causes the belt to run to the centre of its driving face. (This will often allow belt drive when shafts are not truly parallel).
Principal stout transverse framing beams of the BODY of a POST MILL, pivoting on top of the POST.
A machine for crushing oats, barley etc.
See Cullin Stone.
Basalt stones (a blue/black lava) from the Eifel region of Germany exported via Cologne (from Mayen in the Rhineland)
An underground water channel, sometimes used to supply or drain a waterwheel (e.g. Quarry Bank Mill, Styal).
(1) see CAP SHAPES - DOMED. (2) A type of furnace for melting cast iron.
The circular timber or iron wall plate including the TRACK supporting the revolving cap of a smock or tower mill.
Long-shafted bolts extending below the dust floor and holding down the curb in a tower mill.
Vernacular for a pitched roof having a double slope now called a MANSARD ROOF after the French architect (obsolete Essex term).
A curved FLOAT associated with a PONCELET waterwheel. The curved floats minimising turbulence and increasing efficiency.
A mill that grinds grain for customers in return for a TOLL or portion of the end product.
An adjustable dividing board under a sieve to allow the miller to change the flow of flour in order to get the best result from the milling/sieving operations.
A straight flour from which a (better ) part has been removed.
The TEETH of a GEAR WHEEL, the shapes of which are curved in accordance with the path traced by a point on one circle (the generating circle) as it is rolled inside or outside of another circle (the pitch circle).
A term indiscriminately applied to various kinds of rolls or drums on paper-machines. More particularly the term is applied to the steam-heated cylinders used for drying the web of paper.
Invented by John Dickinson in 1809 and has a cylinder covered with wire through which the water drains, leaving the PULP on the surface. The cylinder is partially immersed in a vat of PULP. It has been developed into board machines and machines for making paper with complex WATERMARKS.
Cylinder Mould Machine
See Cylinder Machine.