A-Z glossary

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Idler Gear
A GEAR WHEEL intermediate between a DRIVING and a DRIVEN wheel.

A time-server apprentice seeking experience at a lower wage than a journeyman.

The principle whereby energy may be obtained from water by an UNDERSHOT waterwheel HORIZONTAL wheel or PELTON WHEEL turbine, whereby rapidly flowing water is directed towards more slowly-moving FLOATS or BUCKETS, to convert some of the energy of motion (kinetic energy) into mechanical power.

The process of intimate mixing and grinding in an EDGERUNNER MILL. See GUNPOWDER MILL.

Indian Meal
Cornmeal from grinding Indian maize or corn.

Industrial Mill
A wind or watermill (or other energy source) which provides the power used to carry out numerous industrial processes.

Inertia Governor
See Lag Governor.

A fitting in the middle of a lower millstone which, by a spindle, supports and revolves the upper stone (C17th mill account - Hants.). See Mace.

To divert water to a mill (Scot.).

See Launder.

Inlayer, Inlair
Channel carrying water to a mill wheel; a small dam leading to such a channel (Scot.).

Inner Headstock
See Headstock.

Inner Wheel
See Pit Wheel.

Inside Winder
A tower or smock mill with winding gear consisting of a windlass mounted inside the cap.

SUCKEN (Scot.).

Intermediate rail between the side girt & bottom rail in Midland post mills.

Intermediate Gearing
An additional GEAR WHEEL(s) inserted between DRIVER(2) and DRIVEN wheels, perhaps to reverse the direction of rotation. See IDLER.

Intermediate Uprights
(1),In Essex mills, an additional upright in framework, often each side of a window, hence WINDOW POSTS. (2) In smock mills, an upright member between cant posts (known in Essex as KINGPOSTS or KINGS.

Intermittent Board Machine
Produces thick sheets of board by winding the paper as it comes from either a FOURDRINIER or a CYLINDER MACHINE onto a roller in layers. When sufficiently thick, the web is cut along the length of the roller and pulled off.

Into House
The operation of pulling the sails closer to the body of the mill. See also OUT OF HOUSE.

Intown Multure
The rate of multure payable by those within the thirl of a certain mill THIRLAGE)(Scot.).

Intown Suckener
See Sucken (Suckeners).

Iron Cross
4,5,6 or 8-armed cast-iron cross fitted to the outer end of a windshaft to which the SAIL BACKS are strapped and bolted. Used as an alternative to the POLL END. Mostly found in Lincolnshire and more northern counties. (often replacing a wooden poll end which had broken off at the mortices for wooden sail backs)

Iron Gudgeons
Part of the bearing at the junction of the POST and CROWN TREES See CROSS TAILED GUDGEON, GUDGEON.

Iron Mortise Wheel
See Mortise Wheel.

Iron Proof

Iron Screw Graffil
See Grappling Irons.

Iron Segment Teeth
Accurate iron castings of teeth for bolting in a ring on a wooden wheel often to replace wooden cogs.

Iron Spider
See Spider.

Metal items used in early mills - gudgeons, bands, hoops , spindles, balance rhynds, drivers, damsels, etc.

Irrigation wheel
See Noria Wheel.