A-Z glossary

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Dagger Point
(1)Degree of reefing employed with a COMMON SAIL which refers to the pointed outline assumed by the outer end of the sailcloth. Only half the area of the sail cloth is spread (SHORT POINT). (2) see COMMON SAIL.

(1) A barrier built across a stream to impound and/or to raise the HEAD OF WATER for use in a mill. (2) A MILL POND in Yorkshire.

Dam Eye
The outlet from a mill dam.

Dam Head
The weir which diverts the water into the mill lade. Also the body of water formed by this weir.

See Spattle.

An iron or wood, 3- or 4-sided spindle, terminating in a fork, crutch, or nut head, which is fitted vertically over the RHYND of an underdriven millstone; employed to agitate the SHOE thus feeding grain to the eye of the stones. Known as an agitator in northern counties. Those with three sides are known as three-beat damsels; those with four as four-beat damsels.

Dandy Roll
A light skeleton roll or cylinder covered with wire which presses gently on the paper while still wet. It helps to improve the formation of the sheet and can be used to impress a WATERMARK on paper made on a FOURDRINIER paper-machine.

See Damsel.

Dash Wheel
See Scoop Wheel.

Date Board
A decorative board fitted under the weather beam in Dutch smock and tower mills.

Dead Collar
See Collar.

Dead Curb
A curb on which the CAP slides on hardwood, iron or brass pads, without the use of rollers or wheels to carry the weight.

Dead Lead
The wide board replacing some of the shutters on the inner half of the leading edge of a double shuttered sail.

Dead Sails

Dead Stone
See Bedstone.

Dead Wheel
See Rack.

Debris Grille
A vertical or near vertical grill, usually of iron bars and sometimes covered with a wire screen to prevent debris, twigs and leaves reaching a waterwheel, or clogging or damaging the machinery of a DRAINAGE MILL.

In hand papermaking is the removable frame around the MOULD which helps to retain the PULP on the mould's surface while the water drains through. On a FOURDRINIER machine, the deckle straps perform the same function on the moving wire.

Deckle Edge
When the deckle is removed from the MOULD and the paper is couched, the edge of the paper becomes thinned out in a slightly wavy line which is the true DECKLE EDGE, an effect found only in hand made paper.

A machine for removing HUSKS from certain seeds.

The modification of the windmill sails by addition of aerodynamically designed metal fairings enclosing the leading edge and STOCK.

The lands attached to a manor. The home farm.

Derby Grits
See Peak Stone.

Derby Peak
See Peak Stone.

Derbyshire Greys
See Peak Stone.

Derbyshire Peak Stone
See Peak Stone.

Derbyshire Stone
See Peak Stone.

Derrick Pole
A vertical or near vertical pole supported by guy ropes for suspending lifting tackle.

A labour-saving device perfected in the C18 by Oliver Evans, an American millwright, to control the descent of grain.

See Click.

A machine for removing dust and dirt from rags or esparto grass (also called a `willow').

Diagonal Brace
The diagonal timber in a smock or post mill wall. or other framing such as FLYPOSTS.

In ROLLER MILLING, the ratio of the rotation of the fast and slow rolls.

The vessel in which wood chips, esparto grass or rags are boiled with chemicals. It can be stationary or revolving, horizontal or upright, cylindrical or spherical according to the system used.

Dipper Wheel
A driven wheel with shaped buckets to lift tin ore in the form of sands or slimes.

Dirty Floor
Floor of building, usually in non-danger area, where entry was permitted in any footwear off open ground.

Disc Separator
A machine, consisting of a number of vertically-rotating discs, having their surfaces indented with small pockets. Used for separating seeds as in a COCKLE CYLINDER.

In roller milling, the dozens of products coming from the mill are mixed into a few DIVIDES maybe 6 or less. This skilled process determines the quality, and hence saleability, of the mill's output.

A thin metal blade which scrapes excess liquid or fibres off a roller to help maintain a smooth surface.

See Dog Iron.

Dog Clutch
A CLUTCH in which the power is transmitted by projections on which both shafts engage. It is capable of being coupled and uncoupled and thus isolating or using a drive.

Dog Iron
A "U" shaped iron bar with pointed ends, which is used in joining timbers together, or holding them temporarily whilst being worked or sawn.

So called when timbers are joined with a dog iron.

See Damsel.

Domed Cap
in the shape of a dome.

Domesday Survey
An C11th survey carried out to ascertain the taxable potential of the country; records about 6,000 watermills (a watermill in this context refers to the number of pairs of stones, not necessarily buildings).

Donkey Engine
A twin cylinder steam engine used for hauling or hoisting, and without a flywheel.

Donkey Mill
A small mill consisting of a waisted stone on conical one, driven by a donkey walking round and round.

Double Feed Centrifugal
A centrifugal DRESSER with independent feeds to each end to separate different streams of material.

Double Header
A post mill with two pairs of stone in the BREAST. (Essex).

Double Pressure Sails
See Double-Sided Sails.

Double Shuttered
Patent sails or spring sails fitted with shutters on both sides of the WHIP or SAIL BACK.

Double-Framed Sail
A sail framed on the two sides of the WHIP.

An extremely durable method of weather-boarding a post or smock mill.

Double-Sided Sails
Patent sails or spring sails fitted with shutters on both sides of the WHIP or SAIL .

(1) The radius of the DRAFT CIRCLE. (2) The position of the furrows on a stone.

Draft Circle
The imaginary circle around the eye of a MILLSTONE from which the FURROWS run tangentially. The draft circle is defined by the stone dresser before DRESSING, and determines the length of the furrows, which in turn affects the speed and quality of milling (along with TENTERING). Wooden templates can be used to mark the draft circle.

Draft Tube
A pipe attached to a turbine with the other end submerged in the tail race. Channelled and pressurised the water used by the turbine.

Drag Stick
A hazel stick fixed vertically to the horse so as to enter the EYE of the RUNNER STONE, contacting its inner surface. This prevents clogging by OATS. Also at the skirt to move MEAL.

Drainage Board
The administration body of a Dutch polder.

Drainage District
The administration area of a polder.

Drainage Mill
A windmill equipped for draining land with SCOOP WHEELS, ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW or PUMPS.

Drainage Mills In Series
Three or four drainage mills working together on the same polder.

Draw Board
A primitive type of sluice in the form of a gate-like board hinged at one side which by manipulation of the draw tree can be pushed across a channel diverting the water to the wheel.

Draw Tree
The lever attached to the draw board and passing through the mill wall, thus allowing water flow adjustment.

A tank of water situated above an incorporating mill and capable of being tipped by a mill explosion, thus extinguishing the flame.

To clean and prepare the working edge of a cutler's or engineer's grindstone.

Dress (flour)
To separate bran and coarse particles from MEAL to produce white or some intermediate grades of flour.

Dress (millstones)
See DRESSING (millstones).

The FLOUR or other product which has passed through a SIEVE mesh.


Dresser Floor
The separate floor in a tower or smock mill housing the dresser and cleaning machine.

Dresser Gears
The essential parts of a dressing machine.

Dressing (flour)
See DRESS (flour).

Dressing (millstones)
nounThe pattern of LANDS and FURROWS on the grinding face of MILLSTONES. Also known as thedress. verb The process of preparing, restoring or sharpening the grinding faces of a MILLSTONE; carried out by a STONE DRESSER.

Dressing Mill
See Seed Mill.

(1) In stone dressing, the amount by which the furrows diverge from the line of radius. (2) see ANGLE OF WEATHER of sails. (3) In a BOAT MILL, when the mooring breaks.

See Furrowing.


A WHEEL, GEAR or SHAFT which is powered directly from another element called the DRIVER.

(1) A cast-iron bar fitted into the millstone spindle, connects the runner stone to the spindle. (2) A WHEEL, GEAR or SHAFT which provides the power to turn another WHEEL, GEAR or SHAFT.

Driving Side
The trailing side of a SAIL.

Driving Stocks
Water-powered HAMMERS employed for FULLING cloth.

A four-wheeled timber wagon.

Drop Line
A circle, of slightly smaller diameter than the PITCH-CIRCLE, scribed on to "blank" wooden teeth when cogging a wheel. From the intersections of this line with the centre lines of the teeth, the working profiles of the teeth may be struck, using dividers.

E Anglian name for a four wheeled timber waggon. See DROGUE.

The part of a SACK HOIST where the chain is wound. Also known as a barrel.

Dry Cylinder Machine
Where the PULP is poured onto the surface of the cylinder so that the water drains away through the cover on the cylinder.

Dry End
The term for the drying section of the paper-machine consisting of the drying cylinders, CALENDER, REEL, etc.

Dry Multure
Toll paid by those whose lands are under THIRLAGE of growing corn in exchange for the freedom to go to market with the rest of their corn (Scot.).

Dull To Dull
(USA term) The method of operating roller mills so that they are run with the longer face of the corrugated cutter edge on the faster roll meeting the shorter face of the edge of the slower rotating roller. Called BACK TO BACK milling in the UK.

(dusty middlings) small middlings from which all the bran has not yet been removed. (Passes through 8 or 9 silk.)

Dust Floor
The top floor of a TOWER or SMOCK mill beneath the cap which excludes dust & dirt from the mill. (May be replaced by a BIN FLOOR in some mills.)

Dust Middlings
See Dunst.

Dust Rooms
Sealed compartments for the collection of dust extracted during the milling of flour.

A mechanical contrivance, usually consisting of a revolving drum of wire mesh for opening out rags, esparto, etc. and getting rid of the dirt.

(1) Separating flour from middlings. (2) The removal of dust from blackpowder by gentle sieving.

Dusting Flour
Used for dusting the unbaked loaf to give a fine colour and texture to the outside of the loaf.

Dutch Blue
See Cullin Stone.

Dutch Blue Stone
See Cullin Stone.

Dutch Fan
Mechanical fan with revolving blades for winnowing grain.

Dutch Mill
early term for what we now call a SMOCK mill.

Dutch Stone
See Cullin Stone.

Dynamic Balance
See Running Balance.