A-Z glossary

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M.G. Machine
A single highly-polished steam-heated drying CYLINDER to which the sheet of paper adheres as it dries and receives a smooth surface on the side in contact with the CYLINDER.

The head mounted on the upper end of a STONE SPINDLE, driving the GIMBAL BAR or RHYND of the RUNNER STONE.

See Mace.

Mace Head
See Mace.

Machine Drive
Any means whereby auxiliary machines are activated.

Machinery Floor
See Dresser Floor.

Building used to store explosive. See `Expense Magazine'.

Magnetic Separator
A device introduced during the latter half of the C19th to remove stray ferrous metal (binding wire etc) from the grain prior to grinding.

Mahogany Staff
See Paint Staff.

Main Post
See Post.

Main Shaft

Main Wheel

Maitin Pin
Pin in the hopper which regulates the supply of grain to the millstones.

Zea mays. (Gramineae). The grain of Indian Corn.

A mixture of starch; paraffin wax and boracic powder, added to and conferring non-incendivity on black-powder See Bobbinite.

The sprouted GRAINS which have been dried in a KILN and coarsely ground in preparation for making beer, whisky etc.

Malt Mill
(1) A machine for breaking the MALT, using rollers. (2) Millstones used for grinding MALT.

Man Load
300 lbs.

Mansard Roof
Roof with a double slope, the lower slope being steeper & larger than the upper. The whole supported by a frame above the tie beam. The trussed construction allows more flexibility of use.

Many Height
Stepped wedge, used as an adjustable fulcrum, for use when raising or lowering millstones. also known as a NOTCH BLOCK or SNOTCH BLOCK.

A covering of stout cloth, usually canvas, stuck to the boarded roof of a windmill CAP or the SMOCK of a SMOCK MILL, to seal against the weather. The cloth being stuck on with size paint, and then painted over to complete the finish.

Marsh Mill
A small, untended DRAINAGE MILL.A windmill for draining marshes with a SCOOP WHEEL, ARCHIMEDIAN SCREW or PUMP, also called a POLDER or PUMPING MILL.

A mixture of WHEAT & RYE (Medieval English term).

Master Face Wheel
A FACE WHEEL used as a PIT WHEEL when driving a LAYSHAFT.

Master Furrow
The longest furrow in the quarter dressing of a millstone. See DRESS(2) QUARTER DRESS, 2nd, 3rd 4th FURROW. see DRESS(2) QUARTER DRESS.

Meadow Mill
See Marsh Mill.

Ground corn as it leaves the MILLSTONES, still containing bran etc. See also WHOLEMEAL.

Meal Ark
See Meal Bin.

Meal Beam
A horizontal, usually curved, timber in the breast framing of a post mill, tenoned into the front corner posts, and supporting the millstone bearers (Suffolk).

Meal Bin
Bins to receive the meal from the stones.

Meal Eye
See Mill Eye.

Meal Floor
The floor below the STONE FLOOR, to which the freshly ground MEAL is discharged through MEAL SPOUTS into SACKS, MEAL BINS or CONVEYOR. Also known as the SPOUT FLOOR.

Meal for Corn
The standard output to be expected from a quantity of grain (e.g. 140 lb of oatmeal from 240 lb of grain).

Meal Man
(1) Man employed to separate the flour from the bran before bolters were used. (2) Trader specialising in the sale of FLOUR & MEAL, not grain. (3) Entrepreneur or employee concerned with flour DRESSING and distribution of the product (particularly before 1820 when flour dressing was frequently carried out in premises away from the mill).

Meal Spout
A chute which conveys the MEAL from the STONES to the MEAL BIN or SACKS.

Mealed Powder
Finely-pulverised black-powder specially made by crunching corned powder in a ball-mill.

Measure, Full
A heaped measure full (old Sussex).

Measure, Race
A level measure (old Sussex).

Mechanical Wood Pulp
PULP prepared by purely mechanical means, e.g. by grinding the logs of wood.

(1). The corn put through the mill at one time (Scot.). (2). Oatmeal ground for hinds and shepherds to last for the winter (Scot.).

A mallet shaped block of wood used to prop the millstones while they are being dressed.

Merchant Mill
Mill grinding and shipping grain products commercially.

13shillings & 4 pence (Scots.). 13s/3d (English) = 76p.


Measures of weight

An intermediate level floor, stage or platform, between two main floors

See Stock.

Middling Rolls
See Reduction Rolls.


See Flour.

The end of a middling or stock. The point on a whip where the middling ends, and the whip continues unsupported (Kent).

See Stock.

Mill Bay
See Bay.

Mill Bed
Flat base of mill, on which runners revolved.

Mill Bill
See Bill.

Mill Bit
See Bill.

Mill Cake
Semi-consolidated product from milling process.

Mill Capacity
(1) A mill's capacity was measured by so many barrels. 196 lbs.= 1 BARREL (14 stones) (2) Measured in SACKS per hour.

Mill Charge
The statutory authorised maximum quantity of powder which was incorporated.

Mill Chisel
See Bill.

Mill Clapper or Clack
See Damsel.

Mill Curb
Raised rim to mill-bed which contains the powder during milling.

Mill Dam
(1) The dam of a mill pond (southern England). (2) Scots and northern term for a MILL POND, MILL RACE or TAIL RACE.

Mill Dozen
The thirteenth peck of grain milled, payable as a toll to the mill owner (? or miller).

Mill Dresser
See Stone Dresser.

Mill Dust
A light, fibrous, dark brown dust which separates from oats during the milling process

Mill Eye
The hole and chute through which the meal passes down from the skirting of the stones.

Mill Flume
See Headrace.

Mill Hand
A lever attached to cross supports at either end of the BRIDGE TREE by which the stones can be adjusted.

Mill Head
See Mill Pond.

Mill Heave
Vessel for measuring the shelled grain.

Mill Hill
See Windmill Mound.

Mill Holme
See Water Meadow.

Mill House
(1) Mill building, wind or water. (Old term used in Insurance Records and elsewhere.) (2) House where MILLER or mill owner lives. (3) The room in a tucking mill containing the STOCKS (Somerset term).

Mill Man
The person who operates and looks after a drainage mill (Norfolk).

Mill Mooter
The miller's share of the meal, collected in a BITCH (Scot.).

Mill Mound
See Windmill Mound.

Mill Pads
Leather or balata pads on which suspended runners were rested while mill was being cleared of clinker, or overnight.

Mill Peck
See Pick.

Mill Pick
See Pick.

Mill Pivot
See Stone Spindle.

Mill Point

Mill Pond
An area of stored water held back by a DAM or embankment, to ensure sufficient water is held for the running of the mill

Mill Post
See Post.

Mill Pot
The section of the LADE which lies below the waterwheel.

Mill Pound
Mill dam.

Mill Race
See Headrace.

Mill Rind
See Rhynd.

Mill Scales
A weighing machine designed for weighing sacks of flour or grain.

Mill Soke
See Soke.

Mill Spindle
See Stone Spindle.

Mill Spout
The fall of water which drives the mill. (Scot.).

Mill Staff
See Paint Staff.

Mill Steep
See Lighter Staff.

Mill Suit
See Soke.

Mill Tail
See Tail Race.

Mill Timmer
A stout beam used in the mill as a support (Scot.).

Mill Wand
The spindle put through the eye of a millstone to enable it to be rolled to the mill. (?)

Mill Wheel
Poetic name for WATERWHEEL

A tower mill with a mound built up around the base to serve in place of a reefing stage. Known in Holland as BERGMOLEN or BELTMOLEN.

Treated by machinery. (esp.: smoothed by calendering rollers in a paper mill).

Person who operates a mill (Especially a grain mill).

Miller's Glory
See Sail Positions.

Miller's Scales
See Mill Scales.

Miller's Spatula
An instrument with a broad steel blade, used for testing the quality of the grist or flour.

Miller's Thumb
A flattened thumb, said to be, associated with the miller testing the meal with his thumb.

Miller's Willow
See Willow.

Miller’s Pride
See Sail Positions.

Miller’s Toll
See Toll.

Panicum miliaceum; Panicum italicum (Graminaceae). Native of India, bearing a large crop of small nutritious seeds.

The process of incorporation.

Milling Soke
See Soke.

One of a pair of circular stones for grinding corn.

Millstone Bridge
See Rhynd.

Millstone Crane

Millstone Curbing
Wooden segments screwed or nailed to the floor, fitting tightly to the skirt of a bedstone. May be finished outside as a circle or octagon according to the shape of the tun casing.

Millstone Dresser
A synonym forSTONE DRESSER.

Millstone dresser
See Stone Dresser.

Millstone Floor
See Stone Floor.

Millstone Grit
See Peak Stone.

Millstone Pinion
See Stone Nut.

The stones in a mill used to break up and grind the GRAIN or other material A pair of millstones comprises the BEDSTONE and upper or RUNNER STONE.

A craftsman with an intimate knowledge of mill equipment, its construction and installation. (Engineer, builder & repairer of wind, water and other mills.)

Miln, Milne, Mylne
MILL (Scot.).

Mitre Wheel
One of a pair of gear wheels of equal size, with 45 degree bevel, usually driven at right angles.

A machine for mixing MEAL, GRAIN or other stock.

A preliminary to incorporation (q.v.). Superseded in part by pulverise (q.v.) production.

One who studies mills.

A billet of laminated steel for forging into blades

Mortar & Pestle
Simple grinding apparatus in which a receptacle (mortar) is used to hold grain, or other material, while it is crushed, or powdered, by a club-shaped implement (pestle).

A hole, usually oblong or square, cut through a piece of wood into which a TENON is secured.

Mortise Gear
See Mortise Wheel.

Mortise Wheel
A GEAR, the rim of which is formed with, usually, oblong holes into which wooden COGS are fixed.

Mortised Windshaft
Wooden windshaft with sail stocks mortised through it, also the brakewheel arms.

Fee taken in kind by the miller for grinding corn sent to his mill (term in 1633 doc.).

A device consisting of a rectangular wooden frame across which is stretched a covering of wire to act as a sieve or STRAINER. The sheet of paper is formed on the surface by dipping the mould in a vat of fibres suspended in water which drains away through the cover when the MOULD is lifted out.

Moulin Pendant
A mill with a waterwheel which is hung from a platform on which the hursting stands. The whole adjustable vertically according to the height of the river.

See Windmill Mound.

Moving Stage
A mobile platform on wheels to give access to the sails from ground level. Also known as a CLOTHING TROLLEY.

A spinning machine capable of producing a variety of weights and strengths of high quality yarn.

Timbers in the construction of a cap frame, usually tenoned into the headstock, and projecting forwards to carry the weather beam. Same as HORNS (Lincolnshire).

Multi-Sailed Mill
A windmill having more than 4 sails.

Multiplying Gear
A set of pulley blocks or sheaves for a rope tackle.

See Toll.

Multure Bowl
The receptacle used by the miller for measuring the TOLL; also known as a TOLL DISH.

Multure Cap
wooden measure used by the miller to take his MULTURE (Scot.).

Multure Chest
A large box for storing grain or meal collected as a MULTURE.

Multure Measure
See Multure Bowl.

Multure Pock
A sack into which the MULTURE (TOLL) is put.

Multure Rent
The amount of MULTURE payable to an estate mill. See TOLL.

Multure Shilling
The proportion of oat husks (or shilling) taken by the miller as his due.