Kiviniemi Farm Mill, Alavalli

A wind-powered mill in Finland.

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This mill is painted Falun red with ten wooden sails, tapering, curved and equal-sided, braced together, and mounted on a front flange with a large wooden cotter. The mill body is 13 ft. 8 in. long, 8 ft. wide and 13 ft. 6 1/2 in. high with the 28 in. diameter hollow post set centrally. The windshaft is octagonal, 13 in. across the flats at the brake wheel, and the neck journal has iron strips 4 1/2 in. wide by 10 1/2 in. long nailed on and separated by wood strips 3/4 in. wide. The headwheel has 20 cogs 4 3/4 in. pitch; spare cogs showed these to be 14 in. long, with a rectangular register 2 in. by 1 3/4 in., and a round shank tapering to 1 1/2 in. diameter, all exact English measurements. It drives a lantern wallower with eleven staves. The tailpole is forked and the timbers, which are 4 in. diameter at the inner end, enter the body at an angle and come to within 22 in. of the breast.

The stone chamber is 15 ft. 11 in. square with hipped corners and the height to the eaves outside is 12 ft. 4 in. The crosstrees are 11 1/2 in. by 10 in. The hollow post is 24 in. square at the base. The stone spindle is round at the upper end, 2 1/4 in. diameter, and at the lower end 2 in. square. The stones are on a hurst and have a bent-wood round casing and a bent-wood ached spring for the iron rap. There is a hopper slung front and rear, with an iron strap in front and two hooks at the rear. The stones are 37 in. diameter from the same quarry as the previous mill and tentering is by a bolt and nut. There is a pot and pintle bearing for the stone spindle and there is a wooden sack stand.

Full details

Power source Wind
Mill type Hollow-post mill
Mill function
Archive ID 11882
Location Alavalli, Jalasjärvi, South Bothnia
Country Finland


  • Wailes, Rex, & Auvo Hirsjärvi, "Finnish Mills Part III: Hollow Post Mills", (Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 44, 1971-1972, pp.99-118)


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