Mindre danske vindmøller 1860 -1980

    Full details

    English titleSmaller Danish windmills 1860-1980
    Authors & editors

    Publisher Danmarks Vindkrafthistoriske Samling
    Year of publication 2001

    Danish (main text)
    English (summaries only)

    Medium Book

    Generation of Electricity > Windpower
    Wind & watermills by Region > Other Europe (not GB) > Nordic & Baltic countries

    Scope & contentThis 41-page booklet published by the Danish Wind-historical Collection, has text, illustrations and photographs on Danish windmills 1860 – 1980.
    Every chapter has a summary in English at the end of the chapter:
    The first farm mills (house mills) (1865-1910)
    Until 1862 it was a royal privilege to run a windmill. After the privilege was abolished 1862 farmers started to build windmills on their farms.

    American inspiration and the beginning of a Danish windmill industry – from 1880
    The Danish production of wind roses started in 1876. Wind roses were also imported from America and Sweden. Now there are hardly any old wind roses of this simple type with fixed blades left in Denmark.

    Wind roses with adjustable blades for farms and factories – from 1890
    The later wind roses, often called wind rose engines, grew bigger and were used for industrial purposes as well as advanced agricultural tasks.

    Wind turbines for electricity production: Poul la Cour’s experiments in Askow 1891 – 1908
    Poul la Cour developed an “ideal turbine” with a rotor with four blades and a tip speed ratio of 2.4. When he died in 1908 there were 30 rural power plants with operating wind turbines. – Further information see

    Windmills with adjustable narrow vanes and the peak of the wind mill development 1890 – 1920
    During the first decades of the 20th century, the mill with adjustable vanes became the most popular wind mill for farm use. Old statistics show that there were around 20,000 mills of all types in operation in 1920. A few mills with adjustable narrow vanes have been preserved at various places in Denmark.

    Aerodynamic blades and experiment with AC-production: The Agricco Mills 1918-26
    Two Danish engineers, Poul Vinding and Johannes Jensen developed a wind mill with aerodynamic blades, the Agricco Mill in 1918. The mills were used in farming and to pump water, and one mill was equipped with a 40kW AC generator supplying electricity to the public grid in North Zealand. The production of the Agricco Mill terminated in 1926.

    Electricity-producing windmills 1939-45
    Windmills for electricity had a comeback during World War II when imported fuel was scarce. In 1943, the total production of electricity from windmills in Denmark came to 3.2 million kWh, of which the circa 70 mills with adjustable narrow vanes counted for 2 million kWh.

    The forerunners of modern wind turbines: The FLS Aeromotors 1940-45
    The new FLS Aeromotors were manufactured by the company F.L.Smidth together with Scandinavian Aero Industry, the only aeroplane manufacturer in Denmark.

    Wind turbines for AC production 1950-60
    Johannes Juul started a systematic development process with AC producing wind turbines that were directly connected to the public grid. In 1962, the development of wind power was abandoned, as it was considered to be too expensive compared with coal.

    Oil crises and new experiments 1975-78
    Experiments with a vertical axis turbine of the Darrieus-type, initiated by graduate engineer Leon Bjervig, were conducted at the Vestas company in 1978. Vestas is now the leading Danish producer of horizontal axis wind turbines.

    There are two more chapters:
    The first generation of new wind turbines and The wind power industry becomes established in 1979-80.

    There is also a Danish glossary of mill words on page 38 and a map and photographs of Preserved mills, museums and wind centre on page 40-41.
    KeywordsDenmark, Electricity,

    Copies held

    Accession no. 23045

    • Shelf location: [G500]